Alfred Cort Haddon

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Haddon’s large strong frame showed intense vitality in every movement and gesture, and that vitality of body and mind maintained itself remarkably almost to the end of his long life. An infusion of irrepressible gaiety and quick-witted sallies added zest to his work and especially to discussions in scientific circles, in which some humorous comment of his would often cut through a web of sophistication. This brightness of spirit leavened a strong sense of justice tinged with quick sympathy, over and above which his delight in chivalrous consideration made him the friend and helper of many in need—a man whose whole nature made him side with the oppressed and helpless, though his vigour of body and mind was a considerable armour against any attempt to dominate him.

His mother wrote books for children and, through her, he gained an interest in nature and animal life. He soon pursued this line of work by making sketches at the zoological gardens. His father’s family were produce brokers interested in Africa and the isles of the Pacific, and to the home came guests and clients of the business bringing with them a knowledge of distant lands and peoples. As he grew up, his fate seemed to be that he should join in the family business, but, in Haddon’s own words, his father found it cheaper to pay for him at Christ’s College, Cambridge; his genius apparently did not include commerce in its purview, however ably he might organize scientific efforts.

When Haddon was an undergraduate, Huxley was making the general public respectful towards science, and dogmatic prejudices were being weakened by his vigorous onslaughts and by Darwin’s writings. Old dualisms of creator and created, heathen and Christian, and so on, were losing much of their meaning, and a new vision of a unitary stream of evolution of the whole universe was spreading within and beyond the company of scientific men. This vision impressed itself on Haddon’s mind and made him a pioneer of modern anthropology. But he did not at once find his way in this direction, and his preliminary efforts in zoological science helped to give his anthropology a strong biological foundation. His teachers at Cambridge included F. M. Balfour and Michael Foster, whose interest in embryology and physiology were reflected in Haddon’s early work. He became a demonstrator in zoology at Cambridge in 1879, and left his university in 1880 to take up the Professorship of Zoology at the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Both at Cambridge and at Dublin his pupils were trained to study living things in their natural surroundings; he was essentially a field worker anxious for first-hand observations and contacts. Marine work was soon developed around south-west Ireland, and Haddon became honorary secretary to the Irish Dredging Committee. This work moreover brought him into contact with fishermen from whom he learned much local traditional lore as he made friends with them and exchanged merry quips and fancies that appeal to Irish wit. Marine zoology, and especially the survey of the group of sea-anemones, seemed to be the field he was marking out as his own, though it was already evident that no one cage could confine his active mind. In 18 87 he published a serious textbook of embryology (Introduction to Embryology) for medical students dealing especially with the development of vertebrates. But his mind revealed its bent by leading him to his first publication, which was a letter to Nature (23 (1880)) on the Greek Fret. It was evolution in human affairs as well as in animal life, in our own social traditions and organizations as well as in those of the lowliest men, that captured his interest. Here was a clue to a new and vast synthesis to replace the disintegrating cosmogonic ideas current in the England of the late nineteenth century.

Professor T. A. Stephenson has kindly allowed me to incorporate here a note on an important phase of Haddon’s scientific work.

‘Haddon’s interest in the beauty of sea-anemones led him to work on the Actiniaria. The first adequate monographer of British sea-anemones was Philip Henry Gosse, whose standard work, Actinologia Britannica, was published in 1860. Gosse appeared before the era of Actinian comparative anatomy, although he examined the internal structure of these creatures to a limited extent. His descriptions of the species, however, were so thoroughly and systematically carried out that, although they deal with the externals alone, they remain valid to this day if suitably supplemented and interpreted.

‘Haddon’s direct personal link with Gosse is recorded as follows in one of his papers, Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society, series ii, 4, 307 (1889): “Owing to the great kindness and liberality of my veteran friend and colleague, Mr Gosse, in placing all his drawings and sketches of Actiniae at my disposal, I am enabled to reproduce two of his beautiful drawings”.

‘Stimulated by the work of the brothers Hertwig, Haddon saw that the study of the British species could advance no further until we possessed a knowledge of their anatomy on the basis of which a sound system of classification could be built up. In a number of papers, some of them written in collaboration with other authors, Haddon published a great variety of systematic and anatomical information, which in the end embraced not only British anemones and zoanthids, but others from far afield. The most important of the papers in this series are A revision of the British Actiniae (1889-91) and The Actiniaria of Torres Straits (1898), both published in the Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society. The first of these works appeared in two parts. Part I (1889) deals with certain Actinian families and with Actinian development; Part II (1891, in collaboration with Miss A. M. Shackleton) with the Zoanthids. It was a serious loss to the progress of the subject that with these two parts the monograph came to an end, so that many of the British species were never treated by Haddon. His other leading work, the Actiniaria of Torres Straits, is a comprehensive account of the anemones, Zoanthids and Cerianthids of that region. All these works are excellently documented, and represent an advance on those of Gosse through the introduction of the anatomical and embryological motif. After the work of Haddon, therefore, the stage was set for modem developments, and his work may be described as the very interesting link between the methods of the nineteenth-century naturalist and those of the twentieth-century anatomist and histologist.’

In Ireland, Haddon’s vigorous objection to social elaboration helped him in his contacts with Irish life, which he learned to appreciate and enjoy. He retained this sympathy and simplicity to the end, becoming a specialist in avoidance of the homage that colleagues and pupils paid to him more and more as he grew to be first a leader and then a renowned veteran of science.

A great event in Haddon’s life was his first expedition, a zoological one, to the Torres Straits (1888), resulting in a number of papers on sea-anemones and other animals, but having results of another kind as well.

In the course of his collecting he came to know the native fishermen who took him in their canoes along the shores of the Torres Straits. Living and talking with them in his simple friendly way, he learned a great deal about their thoughts and customs. He found them deeply puzzled by their new contacts with Europeans and the new words and new ways that were playing havoc with traditional rules of conduct and were introducing a money-economy, European tools and diseases and scraps of European culture. Under stress of new contacts old customs were dying, old arts were being lost, and Haddon became imbued with his special mission to save vanishing data for science. The sea-anemones of the Torres Straits would doubtless be still there fifty years hence, but all sorts of clues to the evolution of human society and of the mind generally would have vanished into oblivion. Science needed them, the minds and languages of the islanders of the Torres Straits must be explored, he must take up anthropology; he must try to see that innocent folk did not become mere disintegrated flotsam and jetsam of modem economic life. His quick perception saw also that the old modes of life and thought of the islanders had partial analogies with long past and almost forgotten ways of our own ancestors in Europe, though he was too sagacious to fall into the ancient error which supposed that all humanity was struggling up different rungs of one and the same ladder. He came back to describe the animals he had found, still especially the sea-anemones, but he devoted more and more attention to fossils of thought, to the past in the present in Britain, to the ideas and emotions, the arts and the customs of lowly folk. The writer well remembers a typical outburst of Haddon’s in a private discussion. ‘They have taken away our traditions, they have taken away our folklore, they have taken away our gods and I know not where they have laid them.’ He also began his great work of collecting obsolescent objects of material culture and brought the British Museum a collection of turtle-shell masks from the Torres Straits, objects that have now ceased to be used or made.

The duties of the chair at the Royal College of Science, Dublin, were confined to the winter, and this gave Haddon opportunities to work during the summer in Cambridge, where he made his home from 1893 onwards; and in 1895 he began to give lectures on anthropology, chiefly physical, to Cambridge medical students. In Ireland he attempted to organize an ethnographical survey and collected data especially concerning the Aran Islanders, but also he investigated physical characteristics of some Irish populations, approaching the subject biologically rather than statistically. His view was that anthropometries were of use especially in giving more precise description to what had been observed by the eye; he had grave suspicions concerning statistical abstractions.

To this period also belongs a book by Haddon that has hardly had the attention it deserves; it was called The study of Man (1895) and expressed simply Haddon’s deep sense of evolutionary sequences of change in our material equipment and our modes of thought. It was one of his sayings that the distinction between savage and civilized is a false one, that civilized folk have as many vestiges of the past in their minds as in their bodies.

Intent on saving vanishing data and keenly sympathetic with lowly peoples in their difficult contacts with modem whites, a friend of Clodd and Huxley, this keen and vigorous evolutionist might have been supposed to be the enemy of the missionary, who is so often a promoter of europeanization. Haddon could criticize frankly, and his vigorous devotion to science often led him to forcible expression; but it is characteristic that he gave a course of lectures to the students being trained by the London Missionary Society without offending susceptibilities and without suppressing what he believed to be the truth.

His work in zoology and on human evolution was meanwhile varied by studies of Decorative art in New Guinea (1894) and Evolution in art (1895). All these additional interests made it increasingly difficult for him fully to maintain his work in Dublin. Flower wanted him to become an anthropologist, but Huxley’s worldly wisdom told him of the financial difficulties of maintaining a wife and a young family on fees scraped together, so long as there was no post dedicated to anthropology. Huxley said that he had ‘dabbled a good deal in anthropology’ and would have liked nothing better than to give himself to it. Haddon continued for some years as a zoologist in Dublin and an anthropologist at large, but in 1900 he and Mrs Haddon, with characteristic courage, decided to give up the zoology chair at Dublin so that he might devote himself entirely to anthropology. The occasion of this decision followed a leading event in Haddon’s scientific life, the second, and anthropological, expedition to the Torres Straits.

This expedition was a great event in the history of anthropological research, partly because of Haddon’s splendid selection of colleagues with cognate branches of study fitted together so as to make possible a comprehensive integration of their observations. The expedition reached Murray Island on 6 May 1898 and a short review of its membership will show with what care its staff was chosen and what insight Haddon showed in identifying men who were to make outstanding contributions to science. It is worth noting a fact that cannot unfortunately be recorded of by any means all scientific expeditions: the members not only looked back with loyal pride on their membership but remained lifelong friends full of personal devotion to their leader. Indeed to few men is it given to inspire such permanent affection from colleagues and assistants, men and women, as Haddon gathered to the end through his unselfishness and considerateness as well as his exuberant vitality.

Haddon had brought home from his first expedition linguistic data which led him to work with S. H. Ray, the remarkable London school-teacher who became so well known in studies of comparative philology of languages of the Pacific. Haddon’s persistent efforts to get more adequate opportunities and recognition for Ray’s work were less successful than he had hoped, and this was a source of deep regret to the leader who often expressed his high estimate of the value of Ray’s co-operation in the expedition of 1898-9.

C. G. Seligman went with Haddon, Ray and Wilkin from Murray Island to New Guinea for a visit lasting from 23 May-until 20 July. Throughout the expedition he gave special attention to anthropometry and to material culture, thus foreshadowing future fines of distinguished work.

C. S. Myers stayed on Murray Island from 6 May to 24 August 1898, specializing on the observation of sensory reactions of the people, and he then left for Sarawak. His contribution to the expedition’s work again indicated subsequent distinction in his chosen field, but it also appears to be due to his initiative that two other men were included in the company; they were William McDougall and W. H. R. Rivers.

William McDougall was on Murray Island with Myers and left with him for Sarawak. He studied tactile sensibility and localization, sensibility to pain, discrimination of small differences in weights lifted, degree of size-weight illusions and variations of blood-pressure. He also acted as medical adviser to the party. On his return to England he checked his observations on Murray Islanders against corresponding observations on Englishmen. As Haddon spent in New Guinea a good deal of the period that McDougall spent on Murray Island, their contacts were not very prolonged, and it was especially when McDougall found himself in company with Hose in Sarawak that his general ethnographical interests developed and led to the publication of The pagan tribes of Borneo by Hose and McDougall in 1912.

W. H. R. Rivers had begun his teaching at Cambridge before he became a member of the expedition which emphasized for him an interest in sociological problems that has had vast consequences in scientific development. It was in the course of this expedition, in which his collaboration with Haddon was specially intimate, that he devised what has since been known as the genealogical method. In Rivers’ own words it is the method of counting relationships, in systems of which we have, as fossils, the hidden indications of ancient social institutions. Haddon and Rivers tried to study their peoples both functionally as present-day working groups and as products of historical evolution.

Haddon always spoke affectionately of another member of the party, Anthony Wilkin, who unfortunately died a few years later. From the History tripos he went out to help Haddon in the study of hero-cults, folk-tales, house-types, land-tenure and ideas of property and its transference. He took photographs for the expedition. After his return he had opportunities of work in Egypt, at Abydos (1899-1901) under Flinders Petrie, and at Kharga (1901) where he caught dysentery and died in May on his return to Cairo. He had, however, in 1900, also joined with D. Randall McIver in a study of the Berbers of Algeria, publishing in 1900 a volume entitled Among the Berbers of Algeria and in 1901, with McIver, Libyan notes, a photographically illustrated study of Berber anthropometry, social organization, villages, houses and pottery and other industries, work which revealed in many points Wilkin’s contact with Haddon.

The Torres Straits expedition was epoch-making for the science of man, and must rank as the pivot of the life-work of its leader, who stood behind his helpers with counsel and cheer, courage and mirth. When asked, years afterwards, how he dared to venture, often alone and unarmed, among wild folk while many others were carried in litters and surrounded by rifle-men, he replied that he had found a piece of string most useful. The reference is to his famous collection of string figures. When he sat down outside a Papuan village and began making string figures, the children would come round and show him how they made theirs, then the mothers would come to see what had interested the children, then the men came to look in some disdain on a harmless fellow who spent his time in this way. His daughter Kathleen, Mrs Rishbeth, went with him to New Guinea in 1914 and herself continued and expanded her collection of string figures and made observations and took photographs; she published Cat’s cradles from many lands in 1911 and Artists in string in 1930, while Mrs Jayne brought out a mass of Haddon’s data in her volume String figures (1906). No one who watched Haddon demonstrating these figures is likely to forget the way in which he used string as a way into the minds of Europeans as well as Papuans.

Rivers and Wilkin had to return to England in October. Myers, having left Torres Straits on 24 August for Sarawak, stayed with Hose from 30 September 1898 to 4 January 1899, and then sailed for Europe. Haddon, Ray and Seligman stayed in the Torres Straits until 15 November, when they left for Sarawak and stayed with Hose from 28 January to 20 April 1899. The expedition thus not only took direct observations in two widely separate environments, but gained therefrom the basis of comparisons which gave their critical notes a valuable degree of objectivity. The work in Borneo included general ethnography and classification of the peoples of that island, and helped Haddon’s later studies of the evolution of textile patterns and of decorative arts generally.

Returning to England, Haddon was welcomed by the scientific world; and an attempt was made, with wide support but unfortunately small success, to get a chair of anthropology at Cambridge created for him in place of his Lectureship in Physical Anthropology. The petitioners specially mention his wide knowledge and interests, his indomitable energy and his infectious enthusiasm. The result was disappointing; a Lectureship at £50 per annum was created in 1900 and was supplemented in 1901 by a Fellowship at Christ’s College. The Lectureship was converted into a Readership at £200 per annum in 1909 and Haddon held this office until his retirement in 1926; so this inspiring pioneer worked without professional rank to the end.

At Cambridge he drafted the scheme of the anthropological tripos on lines which have brought it a deservedly high reputation; and a stream of students from many parts of the world came to learn from him, especially how to work in the field. Mrs Haddon and he made them welcome at home on Sunday afternoons and many friendships grew up around this hospitality; his students were almost additional sons and daughters, he followed and helped the careers of all who showed promise in research, and one remembers particularly his distress at the death of A. B. Deacon and his effort which led to the completion of Deacon’s work on Malekula by Miss Wedgwood and its publication. Another activity which met with partial success was his effort to interest imperial and colonial governments in training, in ethnography and social anthropology, the men who were going to administer territories with non-European populations. It was particularly appropriate that his son, Ernest, after administrative service in Uganda, should return to help in this work at Cambridge, and that his daughter Kathleen, Mrs Rishbeth, should be librarian of the Haddon Library at the department he had built up.

He threw himself into the effort to build up the magnificent Cambridge collections attached to the museum of the anthropological department and used it in informal teaching even long after his retirement.

Status meant little to him personally, but a chair of anthropology would have freed him from the necessity of organizing lecture courses outside Cambridge, though his series of lectures at the Horniman Museum and the syllabuses he issued are cherished by many a student who has been able to read between the simple summarized lines Haddon’s ideas of method in anthropology and a little of his stalwart philosophy of life. A chair would also have helped him in his ceaseless campaigns for anthropological research on vanishing data, and would doubtless have made practicable a much earlier completion of the Torres Straits reports, the last volume of which was delayed until 1935. Haddon poured forth for years articles and reviews, he visited North America, acted as reader to the Cambridge University Press, examined and lectured far and wide. A tribute to him in this phase was to the effect that he was without money and without price. His lectures might not always be entirely successful in form, and the matter might be rather over-condensed, but, at his best, he could give students closely accurate expositions of much that, at that time, was not in any book, and, on occasion, he could hold an audience spellbound. Once he lectured for nearly two hours to an audience of hundreds of undergraduates in a modem university, giving a highly generalized and witty survey of the evolution of human society; he called it a hallelujah lecture and the undergraduates printed it in summary form in their magazine.

Haddon went out with the British Association for the Advancement of Science to Australia in 1914, and made it the occasion of a visit to South Africa on the way, as well as of a third visit to New Guinea, in which he was accompanied by his daughter, Kathleen. He had already seen something of South Africa in 1905, and he re-visited Australia in 1923 as President of the Anthropological Section of the Pan-Pacific Congress. Several visits to North America brought him into contact with the Amerindians in Oklahoma and Montana as well as with universities and museums in many places. He became a corresponding or honorary member of the Anthropological Societies of Washington, New York, Philadelphia, Berlin, Stockholm, Vienna, Paris, Bihar and Orissa and Rome, of the Societe Finno-Ougrienne (Helsinki) and the Societas Scientiarum Fennica, of the Royal Batavian Society of Arts and Letters, the New York Academy of Sciences, the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, the Royal Society of New Zealand and the New Zealand Institute and the Indian Academy of Science, Bangalore. He was a member of the Councils of the Royal Dublin Society, the Royal Anthropological Institute and the Folk-lore Society and presided over the two latter as well as over the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. He was a fellow of the Cambridge Philosophical Society and was elected to the Royal Society in 1899, serving on its Council 1919 to 1921. He held the doctorate of science of his own university, as well as of Perth (W.A.) and Manchester, both of which were given honoris causa. He was chosen to give the Huxley Memorial Lecture in 1920, the Conway Memorial Lecture in 1921, the Herbertson Memorial Lecture in 1927, and the Frazer Lecture in Social Anthropology in 1929. A peculiarly appropriate recognition was the award in 1924 of the first Rivers Memorial Medal for field work in anthropology.

In honour of Haddon’s seventieth birthday Christ’s College gave a dinner at which portraits of him by de Laszlo were presented to the College and to the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, and the artist added a third as a gift from himself to the Haddon family. This dinner was the first occasion on which women dined in the College Hall, a highly suitable acknowledgment of Haddon’s long efforts to secure that scientific considerations should not be limited by sex classification, though he was far from being what is called ‘feminist’.

Haddon’s eightieth birthday was the occasion of another celebration when his friends gave him a cabinet to contain his 10,000 photographs, and a catalogue of this remarkable collection, which includes items that can never be repeated because the ceremonies or other matters concerned are now extinct. The collection is housed in the University Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology to which he devoted so much thought and work and so many gifts.

Haddon’s place in anthropological science is an important one, whether we consider the advance of the subject generally or its promotion in Britain. He was deeply attached to lowly folk and his frank simplicity, as well as his vital consciousness of the nonlogical elements in the thoughts and desires even of the completest European, helped him to get near to them. He could often see what, from their point of view, was the justifiable motive for acts and customs that shocked Western European conventions. He objected to the division of peoples into ‘savage’ and civilized and waxed wrathful with those who would divide the world’s religions into true and false. He saw evolution going on everywhere and in everything, including ourselves and our thoughts and beliefs, and yet he realized very vividly that men may alter their circumstances deliberately, that the cruder forms of determinism or fatalism are quite inadequate. He was ready to recognize that customs and objects of material culture as well as the physical make-up of peoples themselves might give valuable clues to the history of their migrations and their cultural debts to immigrants or passers-by. In this connexion, however, he was less inclined to emphasize the historical hypotheses than was his friend Rivers.

His schemes of classification of mankind on a physical basis characteristically made no claim to be genetic, but he was equally clear that in one and the same population there would be representatives of diverse immigrations and that to treat a population as a unit was fallacious except as a very rough line of approach.

His interest in technological problems and material culture was almost the dominant note in his work and thought, so he liked to think of a group he was studying as a going concern. He was in sympathy with functionalists so long as they did not disregard the historical point of view.

Migrations of culture, parallel lines of evolution in widely separated communities, discontinuous distribution of survivals of what had anciently been widespread, for example, the ‘bachelors’ hut’ in the villages of many lowly agriculturalists, all seemed to him to be valuable hypotheses to be used with moderation in different cases. He would not run any theory or method to death but rather saw the good in doctrines that might clash with one another. He wanted to see peoples studied as communities, their physical characters, sense-perceptions, material equipment, system of relationships, organization and ceremonial, beliefs and traditions, and he was ever concerned that Europeans should be studied in much the same way. We should look at ourselves objectively and see the primitive in the elaborately civilized, not to condemn it but to use it to promote sympathy and understanding lest we destroy what, in Papuan or some other circumstances, may be a valuable feature. Europeanization was not Haddon’s idea of the ultimate goal of evolution of mankind.

One gains an appreciation of persistent vigour when one reflects that since Haddon’s eightieth birthday there have been completed a study of canoes of the Pacific (with Mr James Hornell), a study of textile patterns of the East Indies (with Miss L. E. Start), and a study of the effects in material culture related to the spread of tobacco smoking in the East Indies. This last work is really a study of diffusion of culture without accompanying complications due to conquest or large-scale movement; it is now under the care of the Royal Society.

Sir William Ridgeway said that Haddon was always a source of inspiration; he was a heroic figure to all who gathered around him. Wisdom and understanding were added to knowledge of immense variety, and kindliness and mirth illumined his life to the end, which came just after he had finished his last book and just before his eighty-fifth birthday.

H. J. Fleure


Select Bibliography

A complete bibliography has been deposited in the library of the Royal Anthropological Institute. The following list is of books, lectures and monographs only.

1887. An introduction to the study of embryology, pp. xxx, 336. Griffin, London.

1889. A revision of the British Actiniae, I. Sci. Trans. R. Dublin Soc. (2) 4, 297-361, pi. 26-37.

– (With T. W. Bridge.) Contributions to the anatomy of fishes, I. Proc. Roy. Soc., 46, 309-328.

1890. The ethnography of the Western tribe of Torres Straits. J. Anthrop. Inst., 19, 297-440, map.

1891. (With A. M. Shackleton.) A revision of the British Actiniae, II. Sci. Trans. R. Dublin Soc. (2) 4, 609-672, pi. 58-60.

1893. (With T. W. Bridge.) Contributions to the anatomy of fishes, II. Phil. Trans. B., 184, 63-333, pl 11-19. Summary (1892) in Proc. Roy. Soc., 52, 139-157.

– (With S. H. Ray.) A study of the languages of Torres Straits, with vocabularies and grammatical notes, I. Proc. R. Irish Acad. (3) 2, 463—616.

– Studies in Irish craniology, I. Proc. R. Irish Acad. (3) 2, 759-767.

– (With C. R. Browne.) The ethnography of the Aran Islands, Co. Galway. Proc. R. Irish Acad. (3) 2, 768-830, pi. 22-24.

1894. The decorative art of British New Guinea; a study in Papuan ethnography. Cunningham Memoirs (R. Irish Acad.), 10, 279 pp., 12 pi.

– (With T. W. Bridge.) Contribution to the anatomy of fishes, III. Proc. Roy. Soc., 58, 439-441.

– (With W. J. Sollas and G. Cole.) On the geology of Torres Straits. Trans. R. Irish Acad., 30, 419-470, pi. 22-25.

– Studies in Irish craniology, II. Proc. R. Irish Acad. (3) 3, 311-316.

1895. Evolution in art. pp. xviii, 364. W. Scott, London.

1897. (With S. H. Ray.) A study of the languages of Torres Straits, with vocabularies and grammatical notes, II. Proc. R. Irish Acad. (3) 4, 119-373.

1898. The study of man (Progressive Science series), pp. xxxi, 512. Bliss Sands, London. Italian edition, 1910(?), Sandron, Milan.

– Studies in Irish craniology, III. Proc. R. Irish Acad. (3)4, 570-585.

– The Actiniaria of Torres Straits. Sci. Trans. R. Dublin Soc. (2) 6, 393-522, pl. 22-32.

1900. A classification of the stone clubs of British New Guinea. J. Anthrop. Inst., 30, 221-250.

– Studies in the anthropogeography of British New Guinea. Geogr. J., 16, 265-291, 419-441.

1901. Head-hunters, black, white and brown, pp. xxiv, 428. Methuen, London. Abridged edition, 1932, Watts, London.

1902. What the United States is doing for anthropology (Presidential address). J. Anthrop. Inst., 32, 8-24. Summary, Nature, Lond., 66,430-431.

1903. Totemism (Presidential address to section H). Rep. Brit. Ass., 1902, 738-752.

– Anthropology, its position and needs (Presidential address). J. Anthrop. Inst., 33, 11-23. Summary, Nature, Lond., 67, 449-450.

1905. South African ethnology (Presidential address to section H, British Association). Nature, Lond., 72, 471-479.

1906. Magic and fetishism (Religions ancient and modern), pp. viii, 99. Constable, London. American edition, 1908, Open Court Publishing Co., Chicago.

1907. The religion of the Torres Straits islanders. Essays presented to E. B. Tylor, 175-188.

1908. Art, primitive and savage. In Hasting’s Encyclopedia of religion and ethics, I, 823-827.

1909. The races of man and their distribution, pp. x, 126. Milner, London. American edition, 1909, Knickerbocker Press, New York. Spanish translation, 1924, Madrid. Revised edition, 1924, University Press, Cambridge; and 1925, Macmillan, New York. French translation, 1927, Alcan, Paris. Revised edition, 1929, University Press, Cambridge.

1911. The wanderings of peoples, pp. vii, 124. University Press, Cambridge. Ed. 2, 1919.

1901-1912. Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits, 2 (1901, 1903), 3 (1907), 4 (1912), 5 (1904), 6 (1908). Edited by A. C. Haddon. See also 1935.

1912. The houses of New Guinea. In Festskrift tillägnad Eduard Westermarck, 17-58. Helsinki.

– Description of skulls found at the prehistoric site at Harlyn Bay, in R. A. Bullen’s Harlyn Bay. Ed. 3, 72-108.

– The pygmy question. Appendix B to A. F. R. Wollaston’s Pygmies and Papuans, 303-321. Smith Elder, London.

– The physical characters of the races and peoples of Borneo. Appendix to C. Hose and W. McDougall’s Pagan tribes of Borneo, 2, 311-341.

– (With others.) Notes and queries in anthropology. Ed. 4, Anthrop. Inst., London. Ed. 5, 1929.

1913. The outrigger canoes of Torres Straits and North Queensland. In Essays presented to [Sir] W. Ridgeway, 609-634.

– Heroes and hero-gods, general and primitive. In Hastings’ Encyclopedia of religion and ethics, 6, 633-637.

1916. (With J. Layard.) Report on the ethnographical collections from the Utakwa River made by A. F. R. Wollaston. In Reports . . . British Ornithologists’ Union Expedition … in Netherlands New Guinea, 2.

– Note antropologice sui Papua Occidentali delle Nuova Guinea Inglese. Rev. Antropol., 20 (vol. giub. G. Sergi), 18 pp.

1917. Negrillos and Negritos; New Guinea; Papuans. In Hastings’ Encyclopedia of religion and ethics, 9, 271-274, 339-352, 628.

1919. Presidential address to the Folk-lore Society. Folk-lore, 30, 10-34.

1920. Presidential address to the Folk-lore Society (on vestiges). Folk-lore, 31, 12-29.

– The outriggers of Indonesian canoes. J. R. Anthrop. Inst., 50, 69-134.

– Migrations of cultures in British New Guinea (Huxley Memorial lecture). J. R. Anthrop. Inst., 50, 237-280.

– (With A. H. Quiggin.) A. H. Keane’s Man, past and present. Revised edition, largely rewritten, pp. xi, 582. University Press, Cambridge.

1921. The practical value of ethnology (Conway Memorial lecture). pp. 62. Watts, London.

1924-1925. Pearls as ‘givers of life.’ Man, 24, 177-184; 25, 51-53.

1928. The cult of Waiet in the Murray Islands, Torres Straits. Mem. Queensland Mus., 9, 127-135.

– Environment and cultural progress among primitive peoples (Herbertson Memorial lecture). Geography, 14, 406-416.

1930. The religion of a primitive people (Frazer lecture). Ann. Archceol. Anthrop., 17, 4-18. Also in The Frazer Lectures 1922-1932, Macmillan, London.

1934. History of anthropology. Revised ed. pp. xiv, 146. Watts, London.     

– Notes on A. B. Deacon’s ‘Geometrical drawings from Malekula and other islands of the New Hebrides’ and ‘The geometrical designs of Raga district, North Pentecost. J. R. Anthrop. Inst., 64, 129-175.

1935. Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits, I. pp. xiv, 421. University Press, Cambridge. See also 1901-1912.

– (With J. Huxley and A. M. Carr-Saunders.) We Europeans: a survey of ‘racial’ problems. London, 1935. American edition, 1936, Harper, New York. Swedish translation, 1937, Bonnier, Stockholm. New edition (Pelican Books), 1939, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth.

1936. (With L. E. Start.) Iban or Sea Dayak fabrics and their patterns. pp. xvi, 159. University Press, Cambridge.

1936-1938. (With J. Hornell.) Canoes of Oceania. 3 vol. B. P. Bishop Mus., special Pub., 27-29.

1941 (?) Smoking and tobacco pipes in New Guinea. (Publication under consideration.)

This obituary first appeared as: Fleure, H. J.. 1941. “Alfred Cort Haddon, 1855-1940.” Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society, Vol. 3, No. 9 (Jan., 1941), pp. 448-465. Reproduced with permission.


To cite this article:

FLEURE, H.J.. 1941. “Alfred Cort Haddon, 1855-1940.” Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society, Vol. 3, No. 9 (Jan., 1941), pp. 448-465. (available on-line: